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Xiaoling (Ling Ling) Lim Ang is an economic expert witness specializing in the economics of consumer financial services, antitrust, consumer protection, banking, labor, and intellectual property. She applies economic and econometric analysis in litigation, regulatory, and compliance matters. Clients value her creative, rigorous, and practical approach, which draws on techniques from various practice areas and fields of economics. Dr. Ang has deep experience leading teams working with large, complex data, including consumer financial services transactional data.    


Dr. Ang has submitted reports or testified in matters in federal, state, and administrative law court, consulted on Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), prudential regulator, and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) investigations, and advised clients on consumer financial services compliance issues. She has testified or consulted on issues related to UD(A)AP, fair lending, Truth in Lending (Regulation Z), damages, False Claims Act, breaches of contract, trade secrets, valuation, and lost earnings. Her experience includes matters related to fintech, credit cards, servicing, payments, mortgages, educational loans, deposit products, indirect auto lending, PACE financing, installment lending, and short-term lending.

Dr. Ang’s antitrust work includes matters related to consumer financial services, online retail, fixed-income securities, insurance, consumer packaged goods, and electronic components. Her securities experience includes securities class action, enforcement, and Foreign Corrupt Practices Act matters.

Prior to NERA, Dr. Ang worked as an economist at two financial regulators: the CFPB and the FDIC. At the CFPB, Dr. Ang served as the lead economist on various rulemakings including TILA/RESPA (integration of mortgage disclosures), a rulemaking related to deposit products, multiple interagency appraisal rulemakings, an Equal Credit Opportunity Act amendment, and larger participant rulemakings on student loan servicing and international money transfers. She also worked on disclosure testing, program evaluation, randomized control trials, and a Congressional report on private student loans.

Dr. Ang is a frequent speaker and author on antitrust and financial services issues including digital antitrust, consumer protection, mortgages, payments, fair lending, and fintech. She also leads NERA’s internal Digital Antitrust Collaboration Initiative. 


  • PhD in economics, Princeton University
  • MA in economics, Princeton University
  • MS and BS in mathematics, Loyola University Chicago


  • French